Saturday, February 18, 2012

postheadericon Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum )


Fruit Warehouse | Tomato  ( Solanum lycopersicum )| The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. The first domesticated tomato may have been a little yellow fruit, similar in size to a cherry tomato, grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico. The word "tomato" comes from the Nahuatl word tomato, literally "the swelling fruit."


The word "tomato" may refer to the plant (Solanum Lycopersicum) or the edible, red Typically, That it bears fruit. The tomato fruit is consumed in Diverse Airways, Including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces, and in drinks. The tomato belongs to the nightshade family.

 

The large, Lumpy tomato, a mutation from a smoother, smaller fruit, originated in Mesoamerica, and may be the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits, with Thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types, and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.


Cultivated tomatoes Vary in size, from tomberries, about 5 mm in diameter, through cherry tomatoes, about the same 1-2 centimeters (0.4-0.8 in) size as the wild tomato, up to beefsteak tomatoes 10 centimeters (4 in) or more in diameter. The most Widely grown commercial tomatoes growing niche to be in the 5-6 centimeters (2.0-2.4 in) diameter range.


Tomatoes grown for Canning and sauces are Often elongated, 7-9 centimeters (3-4 in) long and 4-5 centimeters (1.6-2.0 in) diameter; They are known as plum tomatoes, and have a lower water content. Roma-type tomatoes are Important cultivars in the Sacramento Valley. About 150 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2009.


For one variety, processing or plum tomatoes, California accounts for 90% of U.S. production and 35% of world production.According to FAOSTAT, the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2009 were: In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; They were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars.


The tomato is now grown and eaten around the world. Tomatoes are acidic, making them easy to preserve ESPECIALLY home Canning in whole, in pieces, as tomato sauce or paste. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine, ESPECIALLY Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes, Because of its savory flavor (see below).


Natural genetic variation in wild tomatoes and Their genetic relatives has given a plethora of genes That Produce lycopene, carotene, anthocyanin, and other antioxidants. The Richest source of lycopene in the diet is derived tomato and tomato products. Tomatoes and tomato sauces and puree are said to help lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH) and may have anticancer properties. Tomato consumption Might Be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk associated with type 2 diabetes.


While individual breeding can Efforts Produce useful results, the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture-related corporations. Botanically, a tomato is a fruit: the ovary, together with its seeds, of a Flowering Plant. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. In 2009, the state of Ohio passed a law making the tomato the state's official fruit. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965.

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